Council, Idaho: Butch Cornell. Harris, F. History of Washington County and Adams County. Idaho: s. Marti, E. Salute to pioneers of Washington and Adams counties.
Union, Or: E. Snake River savages: Pioneer families. Marti, J. Petri, A. Copper Lodge in Hells Canyon: A memoir. Ruby, R. A guide to the Indian tribes of the Pacific Northwest.
Norman: University of Oklahoma Press. Umatilla Karson, J. Moorhouse, L. Eugene, Or: University of Oregon Libraries. Back to Index. Events for November 11th. Events for November 12th. Events for November 13th. Events for November 14th. Events for November 15th. Events for November 16th. Events for November 17th No Events. Events for November 18th. Events for November 19th. Events for November 20th. Events for November 21st.
Events for November 22nd. Events for November 23rd.
Events for November 24th No Events. Events for November 25th. Events for November 26th. Events for November 27th. Events for November 28th. Ogden was to find his brigade unreliable and willing to go over to American interests.
Jedediah Smith reported that his and expeditions had shown profitable resources still left in the Snake country. Agreement between the United States and Great Britain on August 6, , to continue the Oregon boundary convention of for an indefinite period left exploitation of the Oregon country by Americans open. By his fourth expedition in , Ogden found American trappers throughout the country surrounding Boise.
Fur quantities were down, but American and British contingents continued to worked the country. Ogden spent the winter of on the Portneuf. Fur hunts of faced increased depredations by Blackfoot and Shoshone, increasingly disatisfied with European presence in their territories. When Ogden left the area in , work by British and American companies had seriously diminished the fur resources of the Snake country.
Depredations by Blackfoot and Shoshone and low returns on furs discouraged further intensive work. Yet, an American Fur Company expedition and another Snake brigade under the direction of John Work were in the region again in the fall of Work's brigade scoured the Weiser, Payette, and Boise country thoroughly. Work went up the Lost River to the Salmon, and over to the Blackfoot and onto the Portneuf to winter.
Identity, Sovereignty and Idaho’s Native Peoples
Throughout, the brigade extracted little fur. Work's men worked the mountainous country of central Idaho, and scoured the fur devastated country for what little might remain. American companies continued to work around and in the Snake country. Expeditions led by Walker and Bonneville met in , and concluded that British domination of what little remained in the Snake country was secure.
Louis based trade. In , Nathaniel Wyeth, disatisified with his fur trade venture, established Fort Hall to dispose of goods rejected at the rendezvous. As the fur trade was unprofitable, Wyeth thought he might trade with the Indians and recover some of his expenses. The original Fort Hall was located on the south bank of the Snake River above the mouth of the Portneuf.
It was sixty feet square with ten foot high walls and interior rooms of poles thatched with brush and covered with clay. Shortly after the fort was established, it was visited by a large band of Shoshone and Bannock numbering at least lodges. The fort continued to be a focus for Shoshone-Bannock tribes over the next twenty-three years.
It also became a primary stopover and supply point for immigrants on the Oregon Trail. The California Gold Rush of brought thousands of settlers past the fort. Its location above the split off between trails to Oregon and California made the fort a focus of promoters trying to attract settlers to one region or the other. Organized migrations to the Oregon Territory began by , prompted in no small part by earlier missions that had set up small agricultural communities in the Pacific Northwest.
Oregon missionaries actively encouraged colonization by United States citizens to offset British interests in the region. In , a treaty between the United States and Britain gave all the land west of the Rocky Mountains to the Pacific Coast and between the 42nd and 49th parallels to the United States, with exceptions of holdings of the Hudson's Bay Company and the Puget Sound Agricultural Company which might be purchased at some future date.
History of Idaho Indians ***
These holdings were purchased by the United States in Immigrants began using the Oregon trail in large numbers in , when Dr. Elijah White led an expedition of over one hundred people over the rough wagon road to Oregon's Willamette Valley. In , a thousand emigrants crossed the trail in Applegate's wagon train. The trail had received U. Fremont's survey of , which demonstrated that the Columbia River drainage provided the only practicable route across the Rocky Mountains to the Pacific Ocean.
A dramatic increase in immigrant use of the trail occurred starting in and Many were headed for the gold fields in California, many to the rich arable land of the interior valleys of Oregon. This was the period of greatest impact on the Indian societies of the region. Permanent settlements in Idaho would be relatively rare for several decades yet, but effects of fur trading activities and contact with migrating settlers were dramatic.
The Shoshone or "Snake" were, of course, known outside of present-day Idaho prior to Lewis and Clark's exploration. Thompson records the Snake as a populous and powerful foe on the Western Plains.
Their might in the early 18th century inhibited the expansion of Siouan groups which were being forced west by European advance. Earlier, probably sometime in the 16th century, Shoshoneans had expanded well down into Texas and New Mexico. These Utes and Comanches were Plains tribes dependent upon buffalo for their existence Forbes ; Tyler ; Shimkin In pre-gun times, the early 18th century, it seems that the Shoshone were using a sizable portion of the western Plains.
Apparently, it was smallpox in the late s that first threw the balance of power to the Shoshone's enemies. These epidemics resulted in dramatic population losses, and combined with better armed adversaries expanding onto the western Plains, effectively pushed the Shoshone back into the Rockies Thwaites , 2: By , when visited by Lewis and Clark, the Shoshoneans were only cautiously venturing out onto the Plains to hunt buffalo.
Even their territories in the Rocky Mountain area were not entirely safe, however, and incursions by Blackfeet and others were common. Shoshone fighting to retain control of their territories was a constant theme throughout the early 19th century.
History and Culture of the Boise Shoshone and Bannock Indians
Better armed Blackfeet and Siouan adversaries were constantly encroaching on Shoshone land. Flathead and other Salishan groups to the north often found common cause with the Shoshone, and it was not uncommon to find mixed bands of buffalo hunters or trading parties made up of members of these mountain groups. Buffalo were not the only lure for Shoshone to continue using the Plains.