The most common reason in 48 percent of cases is defamation, followed by privacy and security concerns and adult content. Platform operators can be held liable for illegal content under the Telemedia Act. According to the judgment, if the business model of a service aims to facilitate copyright infringements, the company is considered less worthy of protection with regard to liability privilege. A special requirement to review content for any rights violations was also confirmed in a case involving a blogger who integrated a YouTube video into his website. In June , the ruling coalition in the federal parliament enacted a law that abolished most legal liability for providers of open wireless networks.
For years, the number of free and public Wi-Fi networks in Germany remained low, as providers feared potential negative legal consequences if their networks were used for illegal activities. Germany is home to a vibrant internet community and blogosphere. Local and international media outlets and news sources are accessible and represent a diverse range of opinions.
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While there were concerns about the proliferation of disinformation leading up to the September federal elections, no decisive impact could ultimately be documented. Although experts concluded that no single disinformation campaign had a detectable impact on the election results, a significant number of false news items were identified. To date, self-censorship online has not been a significant or well-documented problem in Germany.
Still, there are some unspoken rules reflected in the publishing principles of the German press. In August , however, the Federal Ministry of the Interior, Building, and Community banned the radical left-wing news website Linksunten. The persons responsible for running the website were forced to shut down its host server and all accompanying social media accounts.
The ministry argued that the association, and the website as an integral part of it, had political goals that were contrary to the constitutional order. In April , the federal parliament formally incorporated the EU rules on net neutrality into domestic law. During the reporting period, several civil society initiatives used the internet to conduct advocacy campaigns on political and social issues in Germany.
After the metoo hashtag spread across Twitter and other social media platforms in the wake of revelations concerning sexual abuse and harassment by Hollywood film producer Harvey Weinstein and other prominent men, primarily in the United States, it took some time for the movement to catch on in Germany as well. These articles generally safeguard offline as well as online communication. Online journalists are largely granted the same rights and protections as journalists in the print or broadcast media.
After two journalists with Netzpolitik. However, the promised reform has not made any progress to date. Since , the Office of the Federal Commissioner for Data Protection and Freedom of Information has been an independent supreme federal authority, a clear upgrade from its former status as a subdivision of the Federal Ministry of the Interior.
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As a result, there have been considerably more convictions for incitement to hatred. A German parliamentary commission of inquiry on intelligence practices—established after former U. Both sides drew criticism for not demanding sufficient steps to end the practice in Germany. A new law on the BND enacted in late continued to be scrutinized over the course of the reporting period.
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The BND had also been storing and processing bulk metadata records of phone calls via its traffic-analysis system VerAS. Amnesty International has filed a complaint before the Federal Constitutional Court, arguing that the authorities granted by the G10 Act are overly permissive and thus unconstitutional. Telecommunications interception by state authorities for criminal prosecutions is regulated by the code of criminal procedure and may only be employed for the prosecution of serious crimes for which specific evidence exists and when other, less intrusive investigative methods are likely to fail.
Separately, antiterrorism legislation that was first passed after the September 11, , terrorist attacks—which, among other provisions, obliges banks or telecommunications operators to disclose customer information to the authorities—was once again extended in through Several legal experts as well as politicians cast doubt on the legality of these measures.
Under the new law, different sets of data have to be stored on servers located within Germany for 10 weeks, while providers have to retain the numbers, as well as the dates and times, of phone calls and text messages. Internet providers are also required to retain the IP internet protocol addresses of all users, as well as the dates and times of connections.
The location data of mobile phone connections must be saved for four weeks. The requirements exclude sites accessed, email traffic metadata, and the content of communications.
Several constitutional complaints against the data retention legislation have been filed and are pending at the Federal Constitutional Court. While the version of the law allowed the disclosure of sensitive user data only for investigations of criminal offenses, the amended act extended it to cases of misdemeanors or administrative offenses. In May , the federal parliament enacted a new law on the introduction of an electronic identification system. Newly arriving migrants and refugees are also targets of new measures that infringe on the protection of their data.
Although authorities originally gave assurances that these measures would be limited to exceptional cases, later statements revealed that because no such limitation is explicitly provided for in the text of the law, the Federal Office for Migration and Refugees intends to implement the measures as standard practice. Condition see all Condition. New Used Not specified Please provide a valid price range. Item location see all Item location. Ireland Only. European Union. Show only see all Show only. Free postage. Completed listings. Sold listings. More refinements Boyle's latest short story collection published this month in Germany only although the cover copy uses English for the cover title and note that the book has no dust jacket.
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It's a short story collection unique to Germany, and published only in Germany in German, for Boyle's German readers and fans, combining stories from two of his previous short story collections. You can see more about it at Amazon's site in Germany:.
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Wenn bei T. Friday, January 26, Cli-Fi Compass: some news links from around the world about the rise of cli-fi around the world. After the forum, Screen Australia put out a call It focuses on a dystopian present in contrast to the dystopian futures highlighted in conventional science fiction. La Tribune. Apocalyptic fiction has bloomed as modern scifi writers explore the implications of this unwanted responsibility.
Extreme weather has created many future stories: for example: the floods and freezing of The Day After Tomorrow. In turn, an entire branch of ' cli-fi ' literature has emerged to guess at the manner Want more cli-fi reading recommendations? It chronicles the findings of conservation biologist Gleb Raygorodetsky as he traveled around the world, visiting Indigenous populations and asking them about how climate change has affected their communities--and what they're doing about it. What are you reading? Tag your Tweet with burningworlds so more folks can see it! Can fiction help us combat climate change?
Ballard Atwood, many novelists ecological disasters. Nearly years ago, on a remote island in Indonesia, all hell broke loose on Earth. A great roar announced the advancement of darkness at 7 pm on April 10, , an explosion rocked Sumbawa, in the archipelago by then known as the Dutch East Indies.
For more than two hours, the Tambora volcano spewed the columns of ash and rock atmosphere, days before flying through the air and kill all vegetation. It was the largest known volcanic eruption of the last thousand years, the most devastating: 71, people died in the region since that time not so far away, it is known as the "Pompeii of the East". There was tsunamis, there was starvation, disease and forced migration. There was desolation. Everyone felt the fury of the volcano for months.
Ash and million tons of sulfur dioxide thrown engulf the planet as a veil, reflecting sunlight so that the overall temperature decreased almost three degrees. The sun seemed to fade and there were those who ensure that was on the verge of extinction. In Europe, from May to September he fell an incessant rain and frost occurred.